Inteligência e Testes de QI
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Income Inequality and IQ PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por Charles Murray   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 13:35

What causes income inequality? The usual answers are economic and sociological. Capitalism systematically generates unequal economic rewards. Social class distinctions create different opportunities in life, leading to unequal economic rewards. These sources of inequality are undoubtedly important, but economists and sociologists have tended to discuss them in a vacuum, ignoring the personal characteristics that individuals bring to the economic marketplace. Psychologists group such characteristics under the heading of individual differences, embracing all aspects of social and cognitive functioning in which the unit of measurement is the individual rather than any group identity such as gender, occupation, ethnicity, or social status. Industriousness is an individual difference. So are other hard-to-measure characteristics such as charm, honesty, creativity, and courage.

 Income Inequality and IQ[ ]349 Kb
Association between the DTNBP1 gene and intelligence PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por Janneke R Zinkstok, Odette de Wilde, Therese AMJ van Amelsvoort, Michael W Tanck, Frank Baas and Don H Linszen   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 13:30

The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. There is growing evidence that DTNPB1 contributes to intelligence and cognition. In this study, we investigated association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DTNBP1 gene and intellectual functioning in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder (first-episode psychosis, FEP), their healthy siblings, and unrelated controls.

Neurobiology of Intelligence: Science and Ethics PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por Jeremy R. Gray and Paul M. Thompson   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 13:21

Human mental abilities, such as intelligence, are complex and profoundly important, both in a practical sense and for what they imply about the human condition. Understanding these abilities in mechanistic terms has the potential to facilitate their enhancement. There is strong evidence that the lateral prefrontal cortex, and possibly other areas, support intelligent behaviour. Variations in intelligence and brain structure are heritable, but are also influenced by factors such as education, family environment and environmental hazards. Cognitive, psychometric, genetic and neuroimaging studies are converging, and the emergence of mechanistic models of intelligence is inevitable. These exciting scientific advances encourage renewed responsiveness to the social and ethical implications of conducting such research.

Human intelligence determined by volume and location of gray matter tissue in brain PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por Richard Haier et al.   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 13:11

General human intelligence appears to be based on the volume of gray matter tissue in certain regions of the brain, UC Irvine College of Medicine researchers have found in the most comprehensive structural brain-scan study of intelligence to date.

The IQ Paradox: Still Resolved PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por William T. Dickens, James R. Flynn   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 13:07

Nearly everyone who studies IQ can agree on two things: environment can affect IQ and those with higher IQs will tend to be found in environments more conducive to developing and maintaining high IQ. These two propositions represent an informal model of IQ. Our contribution was to take this model and show that a formal version could resolve the paradox of the apparently small role played by environment in explaining cross-section variation in IQ and the large role environment must play in explaining IQ gains.

Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, John Jonides, and Walter J. Perrig   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 10:14

Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge. Gf is critical for a wide variety of cognitive tasks, and it is considered one of the most important factors in learning. Moreover, Gf is closely related to professional and educational success, especially in complex and demanding environments. Although performance on tests of Gf can be improved through direct practice on the tests themselves, there is no evidence that training on any other regimen yields increased Gf in adults. Furthermore, there is a long history of research into cognitive training showing that, although performance on trained tasks can increase dramatically, transfer of this learning to other tasks remains poor. Here, we present evidence for transfer from training on a demanding working memory task to measures of Gf. This transfer results even though the trained task is entirely different from the intelligence test itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the extent of gain in intelligence critically depends on the amount of training: the more training, the more improvement in Gf. That is, the training effect is dosage-dependent. Thus, in contrast to many previous studies, we conclude that it is possible to improve Gf without practicing the testing tasks themselves, opening a wide range of applications. 

Longitudinal cohort study of childhood IQ PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por Lawrence J Whalley   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 10:05

Inequalities in health and mortality exist among different socioeconomic groups. People living in deprived conditions generally suffer more illness and die younger,and socioeconomic circumstances in childhood are related to mortality from several illnesses. Educational level also contributes to differences in mortality between socioeconomic groups, although the size of this effect varies nationally. Higher mental ability, as assessed by psychometric tests, is associated with more favourable educational and occupational life outcomes.


Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Escrito por APA Board of Scientific Affairs   
Terça, 03 Fevereiro 2009 09:55

Report of a Task Force established by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association - Released August 7, 1995 - A slightly edited version was published in the American Psychologist, Feb 1996. Official Journal of the APA



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