Exceptional intelligence linked with bipolar disorder?
Escrito por Carlos Simões
Sexta, 19 Fevereiro 2010 12:15
Study reveals that high-achievers are far more likely to be manic depressives. Scientists have for the first time found powerful evidence that genius may be linked with madness. Speculation that the two may be related dates back millennia, and can be found in the writings of Aristotle, Plato and Socrates. Aristotle once claimed that "there is no great genius without a mixture of madness", but the scientific evidence for an association has been weak - until now.
Test scores are certainly going up all over the world, but whether intelligence itself has risen remains controversial. Average scores on intelligence tests are rising substantially and consistently, all over the world. These gains have been going on for the better part of a century—essentially ever since tests were invented. The rate of gain on standard broad-spectrum IQ tests amounts to three IQ points per decade, and it is even higher on certain specialized measures. In the Netherlands, for example, all male 18-year-olds take a test of abstract-reasoning ability as part of a military-induction requirement. Because the same test is used every year, it is easy to see the mean score rising, in this case, at about seven points per decade.
In 1985, Sternberg developed a triarchic theory of intelligence, highlighting the individual differences in intelligence and dividing human intelligence into analytical, creativity, and practical intelligences.
Defining the Inkblot Called Emotional Intelligence
Escrito por David Caruso
Quarta, 04 Fevereiro 2009 17:38
Just what is this thing called emotional intelligence (EI)? The answer, to a large extent, depends on who you ask. EI has served as a sort of conceptual inkblot, an unstructured notion that is open to a vast number of interpretations. The article, Emotional Intelligence: Issues and Common Misunderstandings, by Robert Emmerling and Daniel Goleman provides a balanced and diplomatic overview of this new field, and of the various inkblot percepts. Their article is descriptive, and it is my hope that they, and others, will help to further advance the field through prescriptive articles.
Emotional Intelligence: Issues and Common Misunderstandings
Escrito por Robert J. Emmerling, Daniel Goleman
Quarta, 04 Fevereiro 2009 17:34
In this article we seek to raise issues and air questions that have arisen along with the growing interest in emotional intelligence. We hope to catalyze a dialogue among all those with serious interests in the area, to surface hidden assumptions, correct mistaken impressions, and survey a range of opinions. Such open dialogue, we believe, can pay off to the degree it strengthens the research and thinking that are the foundations of the field-both in theory and in applications.
Personnel selection research provides much evidence that intelligence (g) is an important predictor of performance in training and on the job, especially in higher level work. This article provides evidence that g has pervasive utility in work settings because it is essentially the ability to deal with cognitive complexity, in particular, with complex information processing. The more complex a work task, the greater the advantages that higher g confers in performing it well. Everyday tasks, like job duties, also differ in their level of complexity. The importance of intelligence therefore differs systematically across different arenas of social life as well as economic endeavor. Data from the National Adult Literacy Survey are used to show how higher levels of cognitive ability systematically improve individuals' odds of dealing successfully with the ordinary demands of modern life (such as banking, using maps and transportation schedules, reading and understanding forms, interpreting news articles). These and other data are summarized to illustrate how the advantages of higher g, even when they are small, cumulate to affect the overall life chances of individuals at different ranges of the IQ bell curve. The article concludes by suggesting ways to reduce the risks for low-IQ individuals of being left behind by an increasingly complex postindustrial economy.
Humane-egalitarian ideals, whose aims are group justice and reducing environmental inequality and privilege, must be tested against reality, as revealed by psychology and other social sciences. Four issues are addressed: the equation between IQ and intelligence, whether group potential is determined by a group's mean IQ, whether the Black White IQ gap is genetic, and the meritocratic thesis that genes for IQ will become highly correlated with class. Massive IQ gains over time test the IQ-intelligence equation, reveal groups who achieve far beyond their mean IQs, and falsify prominent arguments for a genetic racial IQ gap. Class IQ trends suggest America is not evolving toward a meritocracy, but a core refutation ofthat thesis is needed and supplied. Finally, the viability of humane ideals is assessed against a worst-case scenario.